Full Sun, Partial Sun/Shade
Acidic, Clay, Loamy, Moist, Rich, Sandy, Well Drained
The seed, fruit, flowers, twigs, bark and leaves are all used as food by various animals. At least 36 species of birds—including ruffed grouse, bobwhite quail and wild turkey—are known to eat the fruit. Chipmunks, foxes, squirrels, skunks, rabbits, deer, beaver, black bear and other mammals also eat the fruit. Foliage and twigs are browsed heavily by deer and rabbits.
Native from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas, this tree was cultivated in 1731. A favorite in America for centuries, both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson planted it on their plantations. Early Native Americans made medicinal teas from its bark, and desperate Civil War doctors used this tea as a quinine substitute. The wood is extremely hard and has been used for weaver's shuttles, chisel and maul handles, golf club heads and yokes.
It is the state tree of Missouri and Virginia.